Transform The Way The World Learns

Blockchain & decentralized Innovation

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Why the blockchain disruption is coming to a business near you

Whether you are a student, a business owner, a manager, or a professional, you can no longer ignore blockchain as some obscure technology just for techies.

While cryptocurrencies continue their classic up and down market dance, the “techtonic” disruption wave that is the blockchain has become a key market force and technology trend impacting every industry, not just the financial markets.



Big Picture


Blockchain, the future of money

People spend their entire lives in pursuit of money, but many individuals do not really understand what creates value. Nic's presentation will explore the history of money, look at recent historical technical and social trends, and look toward the future to better understand what the future holds.

Bitcoin Elements of Trust: Unleashing Creativity

In this talk, Andreas looks at the inner structure of bitcoin and how high-level financial and trust applications are composed from smaller elements. Using analogies from Lego blocks to a chef creating new recipes, this talk highlights the connection between creativity and the flexibility offered by fine-grained components.

How the US government is using blockchain to fight fraud

Kathryn is sharing about the first case of the US government using blockchain to fight fraud. She is sharing about how they could shut down the silk road and even indicted federal agents in the process.

The future will be decentralized

Tech entrepreneur and mathematician Charles Hoskinson says Bitcoin-related technology is about to revolutionise property rights, banking, remote education, private law and crowd-funding for the developing world.

Bitcoin Design Principles

In this talk, Andreas looks at the design principles, metaphors and words used in bitcoin and how they relate to the user experience.

How the blockchain will radically transform the economy

Say hello to the decentralized economy -- the blockchain is about to change everything. In this lucid explainer of the complex (and confusing) technology, Bettina Warburg describes how the blockchain will eliminate the need for centralized institutions like banks or governments to facilitate trade, evolving age-old models of commerce and finance into something far more interesting: a distributed, transparent, autonomous system for exchanging value.

Vitalik Buterin On The State Of Ethereum, The Future Of Blockchain And Google Trying To Hire Him

Cofounder of Ethereum Foundation and Bitcoin Magazine Vitalik Buterin shared his thoughts on the future of blockchain, the state of ethereum and more during a small, private event held in San Francisco last week.

Why Open Blockchains Matter

In this talk, Andreas looks at how the ethos of the free & open-source software movement was vital to Bitcoin's success and explains why it is the open blockchains that truly matter in building a borderless, censorship-resistant internet of money. With applications that are open-source, open-access, and built through permissionless innovation at the edge.

The four pillars of a decentralized society

What if we could rebuild our society in a way that works for everyone? Epochal changes are now underway that are radically transforming how society operates. Johann will describe this revolution, and how it will create vast new economic opportunities and unprecedented social freedom.

Investing in Education Instead of Speculation

Unlike speculation in crypto-currencies, investing in skills is permanent, transferable across chains, long term and empowering. In this talk Andreas looks at education and training in the bitcoin and blockchain space and how it can enrich your life in a sustainable way.

Future of Blockchain

Blockchain is extremely interesting as used as a currency, but what does it look like in everyday use? How will the world change if this is adopted?

Decentralized Globalisation

In this talk, Andreas begins by pointing out the need for a multi-lingual approach to cryptocurrency / open blockchain education when fostering global adoption, but cautions against endeavors that resemble the top-down nature of the current infrastructure. He urges us to prepare for the coming decentralisation of globalisation, the subversion and obsolescence of digital financial colonialism.

The Future of Universities in a Block Chain World

Universities have been central to intellectual and creative discourse for a millennium, and yet during the last two decades, powerful economic, technological and social forces have increasingly challenged their survival. Professor Diane Sieber argues that the future of the university may look very much like its origin: decentralized, just-in-time learning with flexible curricula and outcomes-based rather than credit-hour-based credentialing.





Bitcoin's Lightning Network

Bitcoin has a 7 transaction/second limit, so how can we overcome this? The Lightning Network is one of the proposals.

Cardano - Simply Explained

Cardano (ADA) is gaining a lot of traction, but what makes it so special? In this video I'll explain all the problems that the Cardano team intends to solve. It boils down to: Scalability, Interoperability and Sustainability.

Consensus Algorithms, Blockchain Technology and Bitcoin

An academic lecture by Andreas M. Antonopoulos explaining the consensus algorithm, "Proof of Work", used by bitcoin and many other blockchains. Andreas is a UCL alum.

IOTA's Tangle

How does IOTA's tangle work and how does it compare to a traditional blockchain like the one Bitcoin uses?

What is a Bitcoin hard fork?

What is a hard ford? What’s the impact on a cryptocurrency and why are they created?

Ethereum Explained

Let's build a decentralized ticket service using Ethereum! Ethereum is the 2nd biggest cryptocurrency in market cap behind Bitcoin and offers a Turing-complete blockchain. Using Ethereum + IPFS, developers can build powerful decentralized applications, and this offers novelty in a somewhat saturated market for app developers. Let's get started!

Hyperledger Architecture, Volume 1

Introduction to Hyperledger Business Blockchain Design Philosophy and Consensus

Smart contracts

What are smart contracts and what do they have to do with blockchains and cryptocurrencies?

Proof-of-Stake (vs proof-of-work)

Cryptocurrencies use a ton of electricity because of mining. In recent years people started working on a different technique called Proof-of-Stake. Not only does it use less energy, it can also be more secure.

Dan's Intro to How Ethereum Works

MetaMask's Dan Finlay gives a basic technical overview of how Ethereum and blockchains work at the opening talks of the IPFS Ethererum Hackathon, Seattle 2017.

ERC20 tokens - Simply Explained

Not all cryptocurrencies have their own blockchains. Instead they run on top of other platforms like ERC20 tokens run on top of Ethereum. This video explains what these tokens are and why ERC20 was created.



Use Cases


Building Block(chain)s for a Better Planet

Our research and analysis identified more than 65 existing and emerging blockchain use-cases for the environment through desk-based research and interviews with a range of stakeholders at the forefront of applying blockchain across industry, big tech, entrepreneurs, research and government.

Blockchain use-case solutions that are particularly relevant across environmental applications tend to cluster around the following cross-cutting themes: enabling the transition to cleaner and more efficient decentralized systems; peerto-peer trading of resources or permits; supply-chain transparency and management; new financing models for environmental outcomes; and the realization of non-financial value and natural capital.

The report also identifies enormous potential to create blockchain-enabled “game changers” that have the ability to deliver transformative solutions to environmental challenges. These game changers have the potential to disrupt, or substantially optimize, the systems that are critical to addressing many environmental challenges.

Concerned about Brexit? Why not become an e-resident of Estonia

The most advanced digital society in the world is a former Soviet Republic on the edge of the Baltic Sea.

And by handing over €50 [since this story was published, this price has increased to €100] and a ­photograph, allowing my fingerprints to be taken and waiting a few weeks while my ­credentials were verified, I have been issued with an identity card, a cryptographic key and a PIN code to access its national systems. I am now an official e-resident of the Republic of Estonia, as is the Japanese prime minister, and you will want to be one, too. And what's more, by doing so, you'll be part of a system that could not only reinvent public services for the internet age, but ­fundamentally redefine what it means to be a country.

IBM and Maersk demo: Cross-border supply chain solution on blockchain

Demo of how IBM and Maersk are digitizing and simplifying global trade to create trust and transparency in the supply chain using blockchain technology--a distributed, permissioned platform accessible by the supply chain ecosystem designed to exchange events data and handle document workflows. The example shows how shipping flowers can create trust and security in a digitized workflow while improving efficiencies of global supply chains.

Blockchain in Health Care: Decoding the Hype

Blockchain, the distributed database technology that enables the bitcoin digital currency, is without a doubt rapidly ascending the inflated expectations peak. The excitement around using blockchain technology in health care is also growing. Proponents point to blockchain’s potential to liberate data from entrenched silos, empowering patients to securely “own” their data. Critics argue it’s all hype

Treum Bait To Plate

Treum is a blockchain-based platform for modeling business processes, tracking assets and building the supply chains of the future providing organizations verifiable insights as assets are managed and propagated through the entire supply chain.

Blockchain In Supply Chain Management: 13 Possible Use Cases

There are few industries for which supply chain management of some sort is not essential. The reality that 78% of respondents in one survey reported manually counting inventory in at least one stop along the healthcare supply chain provides a clear picture that plenty of progress updating supply chain management remains to be made.

Blockchain For Health Data and Its Potential Use in Health IT and Health Care Related Research

It is a very exciting time for health care and information technology (IT). Due to improvements in genetic research and the advancement of precision medicine, health care is witnessing an innovative approach to disease prevention and treatment that incorporates an individual patient’s genetic makeup, lifestyle and environment.

Blockchain For Government: 9 Possible Use Cases

Each year, Sen. James Lankford releases a report on the state of government spending, which never fails to garner incredulity from those who care how their taxes are spent. But, the report also inevitably provides a measure of comedy in the form of patently absurd ways to waste taxpayers’ hard-earned cash.

Blockchain for Real Estate

Real estate is the largest asset class in the world. Commercial enterprises and real estate professionals are recognizing the transformative impact of blockchain technology to optimize retail and commercial property sales, streamline payments, and increase access to real estate funds and investment opportunities.

Blockchain In Energy: 7 Possible Use Cases

With the global economy projected to grow four-fold by 2050, projections predict a 70% increase in the demand for oil to fuel the growth. However, the direct relationship between oil consumption and carbon emissions means that CO2 output will rise approximately 130% during that time unless significant changes to how we harvest and consume our energy are made.

Blockchain for Banking and Financial Services

Blockchain technology has the potential to transform the banking and financial industry. According to a report by Jupiter Research, blockchain deployments will enable banks to realize savings on cross-border settlement transactions of up to $27 billion by the end of 2030, reducing costs by more than 11%. This is only one of many ways in which blockchain will impact the financial industry.

Blockchain for Sports and Esports

Major sports organizations around the world recognize the potential of Ethereum blockchain technology to enhance fan interaction, streamline existing operations, and provide new revenue models.

Blockchain in commercial real estate: The future is here

In this updated and expanded version of our report, we reveal how blockchain technology can advance leasing, as well as purchase and sale transactions in commercial real estate. Explore the time and cost benefits of blockchain, as well as increased security and transparency that the technology could drive across the purchase and sale process.

Project Khokha

Project Khokha is a collaborative project led by the SARB and involving a consortium of South African settlement banks as well as technical and support partners. The goal of the project was to build a proofof-concept (PoC) wholesale payment system for interbank settlement using a tokenised South African rand on distributed ledger technology (DLT). The project commenced in January 2018 and ran for 14 weeks. It is the first project initiated by the recently constituted Fintech Unit in the SARB.

Supply Chain Visibility: Powered by IBM Blockchain

This video demonstrates how a blockchain platform can make the supply chain process more efficient for retailers, buyers, and suppliers.

Blockchain In Banking: 14 Possible Use Cases

Investing in new financial technology is a short-term cost for long-term efficiency. This certainly applies to blockchain, which can occupy several roles within the financial sector. From making cross-border payments faster to removing costly middlemen, it’s already impacting the international banking network.

Blockchain: Opportunities for health care

Blockchain technology has the potential to transform health care, placing the patient at the center of the health care ecosystem and increasing the security, privacy, and interoperability of health data. This technology could provide a new model for health information exchanges (HIE) by making electronic medical records more efficient, disintermediated, and secure. While it is not a panacea, this new, rapidly evolving field provides fertile ground for experimentation, investment, and proof-of-concept testing.

Blockchain For Insurance: 10 Possible Use Cases

The most significant, essential types of insurance are key cogs in the American economic sector and are critical to the well-being of countless individuals and families. The life/health insurance sector was responsible for $638 billion in new premiums written in 2015, and the property/casualty sector grew three percent to a record high of $520 billion.

A Case Study IoT and Blockchain powered Healthcare

Motivated by possibilities of Internet of Things we examine could we combine it with distributed peer-to-peer network where non-trusting members can interact without a trusted intermediary – Blockchain for collecting and securing sensitive patient data. We show how we can use IoT devices as sources to collect data in real-time or near real-time and Blockchain for secure access and data exchange between institutions. We also examine possibilities of smart contracts in such environment. We describe how we could exceed lack of storage capabilities in Blockchain using proven Big Data tools for storing and processing data at scale. Our conclusion is that the blockchain-IoT combination is powerful and can cause significant benefit in distributed applications which using sensitive patient data.

Blockchain In Online Gaming: 11 Possible Use Cases

The seismic growth of online gaming is likely a perplexing and astounding development to most non-millennials. In 2017, online PC gaming alone was a $31 billion behemoth, and that figure is expected to grow by 2–3% per annum, with 2018’s total projected to be $32.6 billion.

Blockchain for Supply Chain Management

Supply chains underpin the macroeconomy and global markets. Large enterprises and supply chain leaders are recognizing the transformative impact of blockchain technology to provide consumer goods transparency, trace assets more accurately, and enhance licensing of services, products, and software through the use of automated smart contract payments.

Blockchain In Human Resources: 8 Possible Use Cases

HR departments are mostly known for hiring, but they oversee an array of tasks. It takes an average of 42 days and $4,129 to hire an employee. Executives cost nearly $15,000 per hire. A scrappy HR team is motivated to streamline these processes to save time and money. That’s why they’d do well to investigate blockchain-driven applications useful in human resources.

The story of Provenance - The blockchain startup revolutionising supply chains

Jessi Baker is the Founder of Provenance a UK startup using novel technologies like the blockchain to revolutionise supply chain transparency and product trust. Provenance works with suppliers, brands, and certifiers to enable every product to come with an open, secure record of its journey and creation.

Blockchain for Government and the Public Sector

Government and public sector organizations around the world are recognizing the transformative impact of blockchain technology to help move away from legacy systems and antiquated processes in favor of more agile and responsive structures.

Blockchain In Healthcare: 6 Possible Use Cases

One study ranked the United States healthcare system last among 11 industrialized nations. It suffers from inefficiency and inequity. It’s not as if foreign bias skewed the results: the study was published by the Commonwealth Fund, a US-based foundation improving healthcare through objective analysis.

Blockchain Payments: ConsenSys & Unionbank present Project i2i

The Philippines has a rapidly emerging economy with a population of over 100 million. However, two-thirds of the population remains unbanked. 70 million Filipinos have severely limited access to both the domestic and global financial ecosystems. This poses a significant problem when up to 10% of the Philippines’ GDP is made up of international remittances sent from overseas workers to family members across the country.

21 Promising Blockchain Use Cases

When one talks about technology that could potentially change the way we live, blockchain is a term that is constantly brought up. And for good reason, blockchain technology promises to fundamentally change the way we live in a multitude of areas. It can often be difficult to conceptualize the transformative impact that blockchain can have on our lives, which is why I have decided to compile a list of potential blockchain use cases. Hopefully this list will give you a clearer insight as to the potential of this piece of technology. Just to add, this list is by no means an exhaustive one.

How to activate a blockchain network with IBM Blockchain Platform

This short demo shows how you can quickly and easily develop, govern and operate a blockchain application using IBM Blockchain Platform.

MedRec: Medical Data Management on the Blockchain

Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) crave innovation. Years of regulation have stifled tech development in medical data management, while an array of incompatible back-end systems and fragmented data trails limit patients' ability to engage with their medical history. We demonstrate MedRec as a solution tuned to the needs of patients, the treatment community, and medical researchers.

Blockchain for Supply Chain Management

How can blockchain technology help improve the supply chain? All physical products must take a journey from the factory to the consumer and this journey is called the supply chain. Unfortunately, the path to the consumer isn't straightforward, there are sometimes dozens of intermediaries involved in this process. That includes quality assurance, drivers, procurement officers, etc. Blockchain acts as an immutable store of data, and removes the need for one or more third parties. It can help save both businesses and consumers time and money in this case. In this video I'll demo a solidity app that tracks asset, talk about a real world example called SyncFab, and discuss the different ways blockchain can affect the supply chain. Enjoy!

Blockchain For Non-Profits: 10 Possible Use Cases

Americans broke out their pocketbooks to give over $410 billion to charity in 2017, a 5.2% increase from the previous year. However, a series of scandals have rocked the way that the public perceives the typical charity, and trust in charitable organizations recently cratered to 57%, the lowest the figure has dipped since 2005. It’s no coincidence that headline-grabbing scandals in the world of philanthropy coincided with the decline in faith toward these organizations.

The World’s Largest Shipping Firm Now Tracks Cargo on Blockchain

The Danish shipping giant Maersk has revealed the completion of its first live blockchain trial, aimed at simplifying the way in which it sends trillions of dollars worth of products around the world.

Blockchain In Retail: 9 Possible Use Cases

With market growth for the retail industry projected to sustain between 3.2% and 3.8% for the 2018 calendar year, retail as a whole would seemingly be far from needing life support. But there are significant challenges facing the retail sector that could determine which players become long-term beneficiaries of evolution and which fall off the map completely.

Blockchain for Energy and Sustainability

Energy companies, ranging from utility providers to oil and gas enterprises, are recognizing the transformative impact of blockchain technology.

Blockchain In The Legal Industry: 10 Possible Use Cases

As of 2018, there are 1,338,678 active attorneys practicing in the United States. This is the most attorneys there have ever been practicing inside the nation’s borders, and is a marked leap from the 64,137 American lawyers practicing in 1878.

Blockchain for Healthcare and the Life Sciences

Healthcare professionals and medical providers in fields including global public health, pharmacology, medicine, and health data are recognizing the advantages of Ethereum blockchain technology to streamline and secure medical data management, drug and medical device tracking, and more.

Blockchain For Stock Markets: 11 Possible Use Cases

The more consumer protections and transparency we bring to investment markets, the better. The blockchain could help deliver multiple investor safeguards.

The use cases start simple, by automating stock trading to cut out fees and middlemen, or logging trade histories and mandatory financial data on a blockchain to ease regulator access. This technology could even enable totally new asset classes for trade.





Cryptography 101 - The Basics

In this video we cover basic terminology in cryptography, including what is a ciphertext, plaintext, keys, public key crypto, and private key crypto.

What are certificates?

Certificates are used to prove identity and used for creating secure communication.

Asymmetric encryption

How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption?

SHA: Secure Hashing Algorithm

Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA1) explained. Dr Mike Pound explains how files are used to generate seemingly random hash strings.

The Cryptography Behind Bitcoin

We recorded a presentation we gave to our class on the Cryptography Behind Bitcoin and shared it with you all!

Introduction to Cryptographic Keys and Certificates

This video provides a brief introduction to symmetric and asymmetric keys and certificates.

Public Key Cryptography

Spies used to meet in the park to exchange code words, now things have moved on - Robert Miles explains the principle of Public/Private Key Cryptography

Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman

A short video that describes the basics of the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman protocol for key exchanges.



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Bitcoin Q&A: Explain Bitcoin to my mother?

Could you explain what Bitcoin is in a non-technical way that my mother / father / grandparents could understand?

Nick Szabo Interview | The Tim Ferriss Show

Nick Szabo (@NickSzabo4) is a polymath. The breadth and depth of his interests and knowledge are truly astounding.


A talk by Andreas M. Antonopoulos about how new technologies are initially built on old infrastructures until an "infrastructure inversion" happens and they replace the old infrastructure. Comparisons to the automobile, electricity and internet explain the concept and predict a similar future for bitcoin and financial infrastructure.

Money, blockchains, and social scalability

Blockchains are all the rage. The oldest and biggest blockchain of them all is Bitcoin, which over its eight-year history so far starshipped in value from 10,000 bitcoins per pizza (before there were exchanges that priced bitcoin in traditional currencies) to over $1,000 per bitcoin. As of this writing Bitcoin has a market capitalization of over $16 billion. Running non-stop for eight years, with almost no financial loss on the chain itself, it is now in important ways the most reliable and secure financial network in the world.

Time value of money

Why when you get your money matters as much as how much money. Present and future value also discussed. Created by Sal Khan.

Tulip mania: The flowers that cost more than houses

The tale of the Dutch tulip craze is a cautionary one – the first example of an economic bubble. As a new exhibition of flower paintings opens in London, Alastair Sooke looks back.

Debt: The First 5000 Years

David Graeber is an American anthropologist, author, and activist who teaches at Goldsmiths, University of London. His book, Debt: The First Five Thousand Years, is the topic of our discussion. In it, Graeber shows how debt, and debt forgiveness have been at the center of political debates across the world and have given rise to innumerable uprisings. He explores the history of money and credit, and how societies have been divided into creditors and debtors.

Bitcoin for Beginners

This is the first part of a talk which took place on February 22nd 2017 at the inaugural Bloktex Conference pre-event, hosted at Technology Park in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Billion-Dollar Returns: The Upside of Facebook’s Libra Cryptocurrency

This article deals specifically and exclusively with that upside, admittedly handwaving aside many other potential issues with the protocol, to be addressed elsewhere.

Novogratz Talks Cryptocurrencies and Regulation

Michael Novogratz, founder and chief executive officer of Galaxy Digital Capital Management, talks about the impact of cryptocurrencies on institutional investment with Bloomberg's Erik Schatzker at the Bloomberg Invest Summit in New York.

1,000 Bitcoin Wallets Won’t Replace One Financial Revolution

At this point in the bitcoin lifecycle, the fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD) and naysaying we’ve been hearing is mostly true. The network is abysmally slow. The use cases are half-baked and consumers will receive no implicit benefit from bitcoin over, say, swiping their Visa card.

Ithaca Hours: Local Currency Ithaca Hours is a local currency system that promotes local economic strength and community self-reliance in ways which will support economic and social justice, ecology, community participation and human aspirations in and around Ithaca, New York.

David Graeber: "DEBT: The First 5,000 Years" | Talks at Google

While the "national debt" has been the concern du jour of many economists, commentators and politicians, little attention is ever paid to the historical significance of debt.

Fake News, Fake Money

In this talk, Andreas examines the sensationalist debate over "fake news," the rising tide of faith-based nation states declaring bitcoin as "fake money," and alternative mechanisms we can build to fill the void left by retired fact-checking departments & central bank authorities.

A Short Introduction to the World of Cryptocurrencies

In this article, we give a short introduction to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. The focus of the introduction is on Bitcoin, but many elements are shared by other blockchain implementations and alternative cryptoassets. The article covers the original idea and motivation, the mode of operation and possible applications of cryptocurrencies, and blockchain technology.

Introduction to Bitcoin

Presented at the Singularity University's Innovation Partnership Program (IPP), this is an entry level talk about bitcoin by Andreas Antonopoulos.

Bitcoin Q&A: What is the appeal of sound money?

What functions of money does the current stage of bitcoin fulfill? What is the current popular use case? Why will unit of account be the last function we achieve? Which use cases will accelerate bitcoin adoption in western countries (ex. Germany)? Why should we not be so hard on speculation and hedging against devaluation? What is the appeal of sound money? Will bitcoin become a world reserve currency? Why is gold not a good medium of exchange? How do we incentivise spending of bitcoin, when the current trend is to hold? Why is HODLing simultaneously hard? Why do mainstream economists call it "hoarding" instead of "saving"?


The killer application for electronic networks isn't video-on-demand. It's going to hit you where it really matters - in your wallet. It's not only going to revolutionize the Net, it will change the global economy.

The many traditions of non-governmental money (part i)

The central bank of the United States, the Federal Reserve, has put out “educational material” on Bitcoin for teachers and students (including a quiz!). The Bitcoin parts are odd enough, but this and a subsequent blog post will focus on the following statement: “traditionally, currency is produced by a nation's government.“ Is that a fair representation of monetary traditions? At the very least it is quite incomplete. This two-part series will proceed back in time, showing some of the many examples non-governmental money, in order to fill in some of the gaps.

Silvio Gesell

A short clip about economist Silvio Gesell, one of the fathers of the complementary currency movement.


 Artificial Intelligence

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Joseph Stiglitz on artificial intelligence: 'We’re going towards a more divided society'

It must be hard for Joseph Stiglitz to remain an optimist in the face of the grim future he fears may be coming. The Nobel laureate and former chief economist at the World Bank has thought carefully about how artificial intelligence will affect our lives.

Computer’s Go victory reminds us that we need to question our reliance on AI

The victory of a computer over one of the world’s strongest players of the game Go has been hailed by many as a landmark event in artificial intelligence. But why? After all, computers have beaten us at games before, most notably in 1997 when the computer Deep Blue triumphed over chess grandmaster Gary Kasparov.

More Resources Coming Soon

California's would-be governor prepares for battle against job-killing robots

The graduating computer science students at the University of California at Berkeley had just finished chuckling at a joke about fleets of “Google buses, Facebook shuttles and Uber-copters” lining up to whisk them them to elite jobs in Silicon Valley. The commencement ceremony for a cohort of students who, one professor confided, were worth around $25bn was a feel-good affair.